Ocean Acidification: When carbon dioxide dissolves in this ocean, carbonic acid is formed. Sinceoceans absorb a lot of the carbonreleased by fossil fuel burning, carbonic acid is increasing in the ocean. This leads to higher acidity, mainly near the surface. Acidification harms shell-forming plants and animals including surface and deep-water corals, many plankton, pteropods (marine snails), mollusks (clams, oysters), and lobsters (Orr et al., 2005). Many of these organisms provide critical habitat and/or food sources for other organisms. Disturbing these organisms can thus have important ripple effects throughout the marine food chain.